What should I eat?
If you know nothing about eating healthy, read the Wikipedia article on Human Nutriton.
So, as the article says, "nutrients" consist of carbs, fat, fiber, protein, vitamins, minerals, and water. Let's go into how to get each of these in a vegan diet.
Don't forget it! There's a bunch of numerical recommendations out there like 8 glasses of water per day, or a few liters, whatever. I'll give you a qualitative rule here: your pee should be a light color. If it's completely clear you don't need to be drinking as much. If it's on the darker side, drink more.
Not strictly necessary, though most people will probably want to eat them cause they're pretty cheap and taste good and fill you up. There are two types, simple and complex. For simple, think "fruit." For complex, think "grain". Complex carbs give you more sustained energy, whereas simple are quick energy. You should try to eat whole grains as opposed to refined (whole wheat, not white). Refined grains still have carbs but they've lost a lot of the other nutritional value like protein and vitamins. Too much of simple carbs (like table sugar) is what leads to diseases like diabetes.
I'm not an expert but it's probably extremely difficult if not impossible to eat enough fruit for the amount of simple sugar to be bad for you (certain primates eat almost exclusively fruit, for example). You should never feel bad about sugar intake when reaching for a piece of fruit.
Sources of Carbohydrates:
- Whole grains like oats, brown rice, whole grain bread
- Starchy veggies like potato and sweet potato.
Fat's pretty simple. There are things called amino acids that are used for pretty much everything (even cell division) in the body. So, they're obviously necessary. The body can't produce all of the ones we need, so that's where eating fat comes in.
Sources of Fats:
- Vegetable oils (olive, canola, coconut, etc.)
Can I get the nutrients I need as a vegan?
Short answer: yes. Long answer: see below.
- It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that appropriately planned vegetarian, including vegan, diets are healthful, nutritionally adequate, and may provide health benefits for the prevention and treatment of certain diseases. These diets are appropriate for all stages of the life cycle, including pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, adolescence, older adulthood, and for athletes.
- A healthy vegan diet can meet all your nutrient needs at any stage of life including when you are pregnant, breastfeeding or for older adults.
- With good planning and an understanding of what makes up a healthy, balanced vegan diet, you can get all the nutrients your body needs.
- A well-planned, balanced vegetarian or vegan diet can be nutritionally adequate ... Studies of UK vegetarian and vegan children have revealed that their growth and development are within the normal range.
- Vegan diets are a type of vegetarian diet, where only plant-based foods are eaten. With good planning, those following a vegan diet can cover all their nutrient bases, but there are some extra things to consider.
- Vegetarian diets (see context) can meet all the recommendations for nutrients. The key is to consume a variety of foods and the right amount of foods to meet your calorie needs. Follow the food group recommendations for your age, sex, and activity level to get the right amount of food and the variety of foods needed for nutrient adequacy. Nutrients that vegetarians may need to focus on include protein, iron, calcium, zinc, and vitamin B12.
- Appropriately planned vegetarian diets, including total vegetarian or vegan diets, are healthy and nutritionally adequate. Well-planned vegetarian diets are appropriate for individuals during all stages of the lifecycle. Those following a strict vegetarian or vegan diet can meet nutrient requirements as long as energy needs are met and an appropriate variety of plant foods are eaten throughout the day
- A well-planned vegetarian diet (see context) can meet the needs of people of all ages, including children, teenagers, and pregnant or breast-feeding women. The key is to be aware of your nutritional needs so that you plan a diet that meets them.
- Vegetarian diets (see context) can provide all the nutrients you need at any age, as well as some additional health benefits.
- Traditionally, research into vegetarianism focused mainly on potential nutritional deficiencies, but in recent years, the pendulum has swung the other way, and studies are confirming the health benefits of meat-free eating. Nowadays, plant-based eating is recognized as not only nutritionally sufficient but also as a way to reduce the risk for many chronic illnesses.
- Well planned vegetarian diets (see context) can be nutritious and healthy. They are associated with lower risks of heart disease, high blood pressure, Type 2 diabetes, obesity, certain cancers and lower cholesterol levels. This could be because such diets are lower in saturated fat, contain fewer calories and more fiber and phytonutrients/phytochemicals (these can have protective properties) than non-vegetarian diets. (...) Well-planned vegetarian diets are appropriate for all stages of life and have many benefits.