This thread brought the issue to my attention and it could have a lot of bad effects. I hadn't even heard of it before about 5 minutes ago.
As pointed out in the twitter thread, some of the following could be lost if scraping becomes criminalized:
- research projects that monitor big tech
- studies on how disinformation spreads
- being able to find archived versions of lost websites/older versions, like the internet archive provides
- consumer protection through price trackers
- Algorithmic monitoring of racist, sexist software
- Election campaigning data and election analysis
- basic stuff like scraping headlines
- COVID dashboards
- White hat hackers who help tech platforms find vulnerabilities in their stack
...and so on.