Submitted by ziq at July 13, 2018 at 7:54 PM in AskRaddle
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Copypasta incoming of some useful ideas and concepts you could look into!
Chaos Theory: Predicting the future of a chaotic system is intractably hard. Failing to account for the tiniest thing can have a profound effect over time. Because of this, we'll never be able to accurately predict even the weather more than a few days in advance, let alone human behavior, animal behavior, the stock market, etc.
Quantum Mechanics: Even if we had a perfect mathematical model for a system, we could never provide accurate inputs to that model.
The Uncertainty Principle says we can't know everything about a particle's state at a given point in time.
The Copenhagen Interpretation gives the Universe a probabilistic nature. We can reason about the probability of outcomes, but cannot state exactly what an outcome will be.
Gödel's incompleteness theorems: We can never have such a perfect mathematical model for everything, because there will always be some theorems which are true which cannot be proved.
Halting problem: We cannot even identify the theorems which cannot be proved, nor can we guarantee algorithms we write will produce an answer in a finite amount of time, nor can we necessarily know up-front that an algorithm may not produce an answer.
It's all the same idea. There's a boundary on what we can know, model, and compute. There is no clockwork model for the Universe.