One of the core questions in political philosophy has always been that of "Human Nature". One's view of Human Nature plays a pivotal role in determining one's political philosophy and ideology. Thomas Hobbes viewed Human Nature (absent laws and society) as that of violence and domineering brutishness, which plays a central role in his defense of the State. In contrast, Rousseau viewed Human Nature as peaceful, docile, carefree, and egalitarian.
Contrary to what most people may think, social scientific evidence overwhelmingly favors Rousseau's view of Human Nature over that of Hobbes:
Additionally, our pre-Neolithic hunter-gatherer ancestors most likely had far lower rates of depression, worked far less hours, and did not live hierarchically - this included social equality between the sexes as well.
How does your conception of "Human Nature" influence your political philosophy and ideology? Do you agree or disagree with what I've written?